What is Credit Score and how does it work?

A credit score is a crucial evaluation used by financial institutions to assess an individual or corporation’s creditworthiness. A higher credit score signifies a reliable and credible borrower, which leads to various benefits. In this article, we’ll delve into the workings of credit scores, factors influencing them, and practical steps to enhance your creditworthiness in Nigeria.

How Credit Scores Work:

A credit score plays a pivotal role in a lender’s decision-making process for loan approvals. It reflects the risk associated with lending to a particular borrower. A higher credit score not only increases the likelihood of loan approval but also leads to lower interest rates and smoother application processes for financial products.

Factors Affecting Credit Scores:

  1. Payment History (35%): Timely payments of bills and obligations demonstrate financial responsibility and account for a significant portion of the credit score evaluation.
  2. Total Amount Owed (30%): This factor reflects the percentage of available credit that has been borrowed and helps in gauging how responsibly one handles debt.
  3. Credit History (15%): The length of time an account has been open and recent account activity are considered. Longer credit histories generally lead to higher credit scores.
  4. New Credit (10%): Opening numerous credit accounts and applying for multiple loans within a short period can adversely impact your credit score.
  5. Types of Credit (10%): Having a balanced mix of credit and installment loans indicates experience in managing various forms of credit and can positively influence your credit score.

Improving Your Credit Score:

  1. Make Payments on Time: Consistently meeting payment deadlines for bills and obligations is crucial for a positive credit score.
  2. Review Credit Reports: Regularly checking your credit report allows you to identify what is positively or negatively affecting your score. Request a report from your financial institution for this purpose.
  3. Use Credit Monitoring: Employing credit monitoring services helps track changes in your credit report, preventing potential fraud and providing insights into your financial progress.
  4. Limit Credit Inquiries: Minimize the number of requests for new credit, as excessive inquiries can signal financial instability to lenders.
  5. Pay off Debts and Maintain Low Balances: Aim to reduce outstanding debts and keep credit card balances low. This demonstrates responsible credit management.
  6. Diversify Accounts: Opening new accounts diversifies your credit mix, which can contribute positively to your credit score.


In Nigeria, a good credit score is your ticket to favorable loan terms and financial opportunities. By understanding the factors that influence your credit score and taking proactive steps to improve it, you can enhance your financial standing and open doors to a range of economic possibilities.

Remember, a higher credit score not only benefits you in the short term but also lays the foundation for a secure and prosperous financial future.

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