Microfinance banks in Nigeria

In the dynamic landscape of Nigeria’s financial sector, microfinance banks emerge as the beacon of hope for the ‘unbankable’ citizens. These institutions, exemplified by stalwarts like Nirsal Microfinance Bank, stand as the antithesis to traditional commercial banks. They simplify processes, reduce paperwork, and open the doors of financial opportunity for medium to low-income earners.


In this article, we delve into the essence of microfinance banks in Nigeria, their pivotal functions, and the transformative benefits they bring to individuals and the nation as a whole.

What is a Microfinance Bank in Nigeria?

Microfinance banks, or microcredit institutions, play a vital role in providing banking services to the low-income to middle-class populace in Nigeria. Without them, these individuals would find it challenging to access the fundamental benefits of a bank. Moreover, microfinance banks are not just about financial transactions; they are about fostering self-sufficiency. The National Microfinance Bank stands as a testament to this commitment, catering to the diverse needs of Nigerians.

Functions of Microfinance Banks

While the specific services offered may vary from one institution to another, the primary objective remains constant: empowering individuals economically. The general functions of microfinance banks encompass deposits, payment services, loans, insurance, and money transfers.


Benefits of Microfinance Banks in Nigeria

  1. Income Generation: Microfinance banks pave the way for individuals to explore opportunities that can lead to increased income, thereby enabling them to better provide for their families.
  2. Inclusive Banking: They serve as a beacon of hope for the ‘unbankable’ segments of society, ensuring that financial services are not confined to a select few.
  3. Job Creation: By providing financial resources to small entrepreneurs and businesses, microfinance banks contribute significantly to job creation, driving economic growth.
  4. Economic Growth: The cumulative impact of microfinance banks has a ripple effect on the national economy, fostering growth from the grassroots level upwards.
  5. Accessible Loans with Favorable Terms: Microfinance banks extend loans to those who might be considered ‘high-risk’ by traditional banks, often offering more favorable repayment rates.

Setting Up a Microfinance Bank in Nigeria

To establish a microfinance bank in Nigeria, adherence to specific financial and structural requirements is crucial. The Central Bank of Nigeria offers three categories:

  1. Unity Microfinance Bank: One main office and a paid-up capital of N20,000,000.
  2. State Microfinance Banks: Can have branches within a state and must maintain a capital of N100,000,000.
  3. National Microfinance Banks: Permitted to have branches across Nigeria, necessitating a capital of N2,000,000,000.

The application process involves submitting essential documents, including a detailed feasibility report, memorandum of association, evidence of lawful capital acquisition, and more.

List of CBN Approved Microfinance Banks

Currently, there are nearly a thousand CBN approved microfinance banks in Nigeria. For a comprehensive list, you can refer to the official CBN website.

  1. Hasal Microfinance Bank
  2. Capstone Microfinance Bank
  3. Lapo Microfinance Bank
  4. AB Microfinance Bank
  5. Richway Microfinance Bank
  6. Accion Microfinance Bank


Microfinance banks stand as pillars of economic development in Nigeria, extending their services and opportunities to those traditionally excluded from formal banking. Their role in fostering financial independence and growth at the grassroots level is invaluable. Encouraged and supported by the government, these institutions are instrumental in building a more inclusive and prosperous nation.

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